The Indus people were a civilization that was built on the practice of trade with other civilizations of the day. Domestication of a perennial wild rice in East Asia produced the short-grained japonica variety whereas domestication, probably in several regions of South Asia, of an annual wild rice gave rise to the long-grained indica variety, which also spread through Southeast Asia and China. To some extent hunting was a by-product of agriculture, birds and herbivores being killed to protect crops and predators to protect livestock, but game could also be a valuable addition to the diet. In many ways, the largest urban culture of its time is still poorly understood by modern-day historians. By the late fourth millennium, the Mesopotamians were trading with a land they called Dilmun. In the fourth millennium (Uruk period), the Sumerians turned their attentions northward, trading with northern Mesopotamia and Anatolia. Crawford (1998, 126) suggests that the under representation of women and children among the burials at Umm-an-Nar may reflect the role of this settlement as a specialist center for traders and sailors without families. In this way rice, some millets and pulses, and a number of vegetables are likely to have first been incorporated into the diet and then added to the range of crops. were present at Mehrgarh in the fourth millennium and have also been recovered from Pirak and Late Harappan Hulas. The production of cotton textiles may have meant that linen was of no interest to the Harappans. Animals were taken at certain times of year to graze on the expanses of seasonal pastures in Gujarat and Punjab and in the uplands of Baluchistan. China, Mesopotamia, Egypt have been widely researched and are well known to us all. Rosewood was available on the plains, as well as in peninsular India- It was used for one of the wooden coffins found at Harappa and was also employed for making furniture, tools, and the wheels of carts. Each region of Asia had other local plants and animals, notably zebu cattle in South Asia. In other cases dams and channels led the floodwater into embanked fields, where they deposited silt and provided enough soil moisture for the growing crops. scale pans here are made of copper. They continued to trade with Magan throughout the third millennium, receiving copper, timber, red ochre, turtles, diorite, and olivine-gabbro in return for wool, textiles and garments, oil, hides, large quantities of barley, and bitumen. Contacts between farmers and hunter-gatherer communities are attested from early times when hunter-gatherers at settlements such as Bagor in Rajasthan and Loteshwar in Gujarat acquired domestic sheep and goats by trading or raiding, perhaps as early as the sixth millennium BC. Advancement in technology led to carts and early boats that were used as the main method of trade and travel. The Indus civilization apparently evolved from the villages of neighbours or predecessors, using the Mesopotamian model of irrigated agriculture with sufficient skill to reap the advantages of the spacious and fertile Indus River valley while controlling the formidable annual flood that simultaneously fertilizes and destroys. These carts were drawn by oxen or bullocks, of which there are also terracotta models. Little millet (Panicum sumatrense) was common at Mature Harappan Rojdi, Oriyo Timbo, and Babar Kot in Gujarat and present at Harappa around 3000 BC, and browntop millet (Brachiaria ramosa) was also grown at Rojdi. Later trade between them is demonstrated by the presence of a few imported objects in Kulli sites and Kulli material in burial cairns on Umman-Nar in Magan. A considerable amount of copper reached Mesopotamia from The Indus Valley Civilization – also sometimes referred to as the “Harappan Civilization” for one of its primary cities – was one of the world’s first civilizations, along with Egypt and Mesopotamia. At this time the people of Dilmun also established a major outpost on the island of Failaka off the southern coast of Mesopotamia. Towns in the Indo-Iranian borderlands and Early Indus settlements in the river plains were active participants in this trade network. Agricultural economy thrived in the Indus Valley civilization.On lands surrounding the cities, farmers constructed dams and levees to channel water from the rivers to crops of wheat and barley. The preservation of plant remains is often poor, depending on local conditions, the type of plant, and chance. To the east of the Late Kot Diji culture area, in Kashmir, there were settlements of the Northern Neolithic culture, such as Gufkral and Burzahom. Land transport over long distances probably generally employed pack animals, though small valuable commodities could be carried by people on foot. The economy of the Indus Valley was based on trade; There was trade in the borders of the civilization and there was trade with Mesopotamia; Carts and boats, the product of technological advancements, were also used in trade; Because the Indus Valley had a lot of water they could irrigate crops well; Barley and wheat were the main crops Many earlier settlements were abandoned. The most direct and easiest sea route north followed the eastern shore of the Gulf. Groundwater, rivers, lakes, streams, and especially floodwaters sufficed. The Indus Valley economy was heavily based on trading, it was one of the most important characteristics of this civilization. These included three kinds of millet- jowar (Sorghum or Guinea corn or Sorghum Bicolor), bajra (pearl millet, Pennisetum typhoides), and ragi (finger millet, Eleusine coracana). The Harappans were therefore clearly an impressive mercantile society engaged in substantial seaborne trade. The trees at higher altitudes in the mountains included deodar and pine, known from Harappa and Mohenjodaro and used in buildings and for other purposes; both are fragrant woods, as is sissoo. The Indus floods in Sindh came largely and July and August, providing water throughout the summer for kharif crops, while winter crops were sustained by the water retained in streams, channels, lakes, and dhands (seasonal lakes), supplemented by water brought down in January or February by the nais flowing off the mountains of Baluchistan. These continued in use into the early second millennium. Basic Facts about Indus Valley Civilization: Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization that thrived along the course of Indus River in North-Western part of Indian subcontinent. Wheat was a staple, while peas, rice, and cotton were also grown. If the Harappans had the knowledge and skill to use these monsoon winds, they may have sailed directly between Gujarat and the Oman coast in the winter; the settlement of Ra’s al-Hadd, where Harappan material, including a seal and an ivory comb, has been found, is today the natural landfall for ships using the monsoon winds. 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